Posts Tagged With: Holy Spirit

God’s Righteousness and Justice. VI: Righteous Men—Cornelius the Centurion

“They said, ‘Cornelius, a centurion, a righteous and God-fearing man well spoken of by the entire nation of the Jews, was divinely directed by a holy angel to send for you to come to his house and hear a message from you’” (Acts 10:22, New American Standard Bible).

St. Cornelius Window, Chapel of St. Cornelius, Governors Island, New York. From Wikipedia, under a Creative Commons 2.0 license.

Some recent posts on this blog have considered the righteousness and justice of God. Here, we meet a Gentile who is described by his servants as “a righteous and God-fearing man.” Acts 10 is devoted to his conversion.

The New Testament teaches that one can only be righteous by having faith in Jesus Christ and being clothed in His righteousness. So, the above verse raises a question: How could Cornelius be righteous if he was not yet a Christian?

Can a person be clothed in the righteousness of God in Christ Jesus before placing their faith in Him? Is it possible to be saved before one comes to know Jesus? Some preachers and theologians believe that God might count someone as having faith in Jesus even if they did not know who He was because their life and attitude suggest they would gladly receive Christ if they knew who He was. This concept of “inclusivism” is illustrated in C. S. Lewis’ book, The Last Battle, the finale of The Chronicles of Narnia. The Christ-like lion king Aslan welcomes Emeth, a soldier in the enemy army who recognizes Aslan as the rightful ruler, into his kingdom, stating that any righteous acts Emeth had done in the name of his false god would be accepted as having been done for Aslan.

This teaching appeals to many Christians who think about the billions who have lived and died without hearing the Gospel. It is painful to imagine that billions of people could be in hell simply because they were born in an area where no Christians brought the Gospel. I would find it comforting to think that there could be nice people from pagan societies in heaven even though they never knew Jesus’ name. However, Christians must take our guidance from God’s Word:

“… ‘Whoever will call on the name of the Lord will be saved.’ How then will they call on Him in whom they have not believed? How will they believe in Him whom they have not heard? And how will they hear without a preacher?” (Romans 10:13–14).

Paul began his letter to the Romans by arguing that nobody is righteous and that all people deserve God’s wrath (culminating in a litany of bold Old Testament statements in Romans 3:9–18). It might be comforting to believe people can be saved without hearing about Jesus, but let us not leap to that assumption. Jesus told us to be His witnesses and make disciples of all nations (Matthew 28:18–20). It is our responsibility to preach His Word, and it is God’s responsibility to decide how He will exercise His mercy.

Can God call somebody “righteous” before they accept Christ? Perhaps Cornelius was one of the elect, predestined to become a Christian, and that is why he is called righteous. I am not aware of any passages of Scripture that would guarantee such a possibility. However, since we know that God predestined those whom He foreknew to be conformed to Christ’s image (Romans 8:29), we can safely say that Cornelius ended up being righteous by His standards.

Perhaps Cornelius’ messengers were misguided, thinking in merely human terms. It is human nature to think of some people as “good people” or “righteous individuals.” We all know people whom we think of as good people. They try to do the right thing and treat other people well, so despite the litany about human depravity in Romans 3:9–18, we think of them as “good people,” even if they do not have a relationship with Jesus Christ. When Paul says, “There is no righteous person, not even one” (Romans 3:10), we assume our unsaved-but-really-nice friend is an exception to that rule. Perhaps Cornelius’ messengers thought like that: He tried to treat people well; he used his influence as a centurion to help people instead of taking advantage of them; he gave to those in need. By human standards, he seemed righteous.

A “god-fearer” in the New Testament was a Gentile who had come to believe in One True God. Often, they saw a lot of truth in the Jewish religion and tried to follow many of its laws. They might try to live by Old Testament standards of justice, righteousness, and morality. However, they did not take the leap to fully convert to Judaism by being circumcised and may not have followed all of the ceremonial laws and traditions.

However, God had begun a work in Cornelius’ life before the angel appeared to him. Jesus taught His disciples that the Holy Spirit would convict the world regarding sin, righteousness, and judgment (John 16:8–11). Cornelius had been convicted. He wanted to follow the one true God. God honored that desire by directing him to one who could help him find the right path by faith in Jesus Christ.

God was working in Cornelius’ life before he knew about Christ. Looking back at my own life, I can see how He was drawing me before I accepted Jesus Christ as my Lord and Savior. I had been raised in the Roman Catholic Church, but by the time I was a teenager I wandered from that faith. Nevertheless, I could never bring myself to thinking about “God” without associating Him with “Jesus.” So, in my late teens, when I entered a phase of spiritual searching (including dabbling in the occult and studying a few non-Christian ideologies), that foundation stayed with me. One night, I found myself reading the Sermon on the Mount and was impressed that Jesus’ teachings were very practical but also seemed humanly impossible. It occurred to me that Jesus did not come to form a new religion but to create a new kind of person. A few months later, some people shared the Gospel with me, and my heart and mind were ready to receive the truth.

Could I be called righteous before I ended my spiritual search by accepting Christ? I would not have used that phrase then, and I still do not think of my pre-Christian self as a righteous person. (I have enough trouble thinking of myself as righteous after 37 years of following Jesus!) Perhaps one cannot think of Cornelius as completely righteous before he met Peter. Nevertheless, the seeker and the God-fearer are both drawn and inspired by the righteousness of God. This is what draws us to Him, and it should be what inspires us to continue walking with Christ every day.

What do you think? How can one be “righteous” before salvation? Share your thoughts about this or anything else related to Cornelius’ story by clicking the “Leave a comment” link below.

Copyright © 2021 Michael E. Lynch. All rights reserved.

Categories: Bible meditations, God's Moral Attributes | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , | 3 Comments

God’s Holiness. III: Holiness and Renewal of the Mind

“As obedient children, do not be conformed to the former lusts which were yours in your ignorance, but like the Holy One who called you, be holy yourselves also in all your behavior; because it is written, ‘YOU SHALL BE HOLY, FOR I AM HOLY.’ If you address as Father the One who impartially judges according to each one’s work, conduct yourselves in fear during the time of your stay on earth; knowing that you were not redeemed with perishable things like silver or gold from your futile way of life inherited from your forefathers, but with precious blood, as of a lamb unblemished and spotless, the blood of Christ” (1 Peter 1:14–19; all Scripture quotations are from the New American Standard Bible).

Image from pxhere.com. Published under a Creative Commons 1.0 Public Domain license.

Our previous post showed that Christians are already holy because we have been set apart for God. However, sometimes we do not look holy. We may not feel holy. Perhaps we may feel like nothing has changed in our lives. While our status as Christians is holy people, set apart for God’s glory, our entire lifetime is a process of learning how to manifest His holiness in our lives.

Peter told his readers, “Do not be conformed to your former lusts.” Old habits of thought and behavior have a way of creeping in even after we have walked with Jesus for a while. We need to allow the Holy Spirit to renew our minds to conform to God’s will, not to the ways of the world:

“Therefore I urge you, brethren, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies a living and holy sacrifice, acceptable to God, which is your spiritual service of worship. And do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, so that you may prove what the will of God is, that which is good and acceptable and perfect” (Romans 12:1–2).

This renewal of the mind is a lifelong process. The world continually bombards us with messages that contradict God’s Word and wisdom. Television, radio, music, news media, the Internet, etc., try to tell us what to think and how to feel about everything. Most of what they say gives little concern for what God has to say; some hold God in open contempt.

To counteract the world’s mindset, we must yield to the Holy Spirit as He renews our mind through God’s Word. You can find several articles on this subject here.

The Bible is our primary source for the renewal of the mind. Its words give life, unlike those of an ordinary book. Peter wrote that the Word of God is the imperishable seed through which we are born again (1 Peter 1:23). Jesus said that His disciples are sanctified through His words:

“But now I come to You; and these things I speak in the world so that they may have My joy made full in themselves. I have given them Your word; and the world has hated them, because they are not of the world, even as I am not of the world. I do not ask You to take them out of the world, but to keep them from the evil one. They are not of the world, even as I am not of the world. Sanctify them in the truth; Your word is truth. As You sent Me into the world, I also have sent them into the world. For their sakes I sanctify Myself, that they themselves also may be sanctified in truth. I do not ask on behalf of these alone, but for those also who believe in Me through their word; that they may all be one; even as You, Father, are in Me and I in You, that they also may be in Us, so that the world may believe that You sent Me. The glory which You have given Me I have given to them, that they may be one, just as We are one; I in them and You in Me, that they may be perfected in unity, so that the world may know that You sent Me, and loved them, even as You have loved Me” (John 17:13–23).

Probably most Christians have a problem accepting these words at face value. “Even as You, Father, are in Me and I in You, that they also may be in Us.” “The glory which You have given Me I have given to them.” I admit it: I do not always feel like I am in Christ to the same extent that He is in the Father. I know my attitude and behavior can sometimes be quite a bit below the level of “godlike.” People do not always see the glory of God in me. Perhaps, no matter how long you have been a Christian, you may say the same thing. But, this is what Jesus says. This is the Word of God. I can choose to believe and accept it or I can deny it. I can seek God’s holiness to be revealed in my life or I can call Him a liar and decide that is impossible. Do we believe that God is truthful? If so, let us seek all that He promises for us!

We need God’s Word to counteract the lies of Satan. The world will continue to bombard us with its propaganda. Also, we have heard numerous messages that diminish our value and potential. We are told to accept sin and spiritual defeat as a normal part of our lives because we are “only human.” To counteract that, we need to spend time reading God’s Word, meditating on it, and studying it, all within a context of prayer to Him. God’s Holy Word, enlightened by the Holy Spirit within us, is vital to produce holiness in our lives.

It can be hard to take God at His Word, especially when He makes such bold statements. Let us not lose heart. Let us hear, read, know, and believe His Word and trust Him to bring it to pass in our lives. If we believe that Jesus is the Way, the Truth, and the Life (John 14:6), let us trust Him that He speaks the truth when He speaks about our lives.

In what ways would you like to see God’s holiness manifested in your life? Feel free to share by clicking the “Leave a comment” link below.

Copyright © 2020 Michael E. Lynch. All rights reserved.

Categories: Bible meditations, God's Holiness, God's Moral Attributes, Renewing the Mind Reflections | Tags: , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Foolish Wisdom

But, as it is written,
“What no eye has seen, nor ear heard,
nor the heart of man imagined,
what God has prepared for those who love him”—
these things God has revealed to us through the Spirit. For the Spirit searches everything, even the depths of God. For who knows a person’s thoughts except the spirit of that person, which is in him? So also no one comprehends the thoughts of God except the Spirit of God. Now we have received not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, that we might understand the things freely given us by God. And we impart this in words not taught by human wisdom but taught by the Spirit, interpreting spiritual truths to those who are spiritual.
The natural person does not accept the things of the Spirit of God, for they are folly to him, and he is not able to understand them because they are spiritually discerned. The spiritual person judges all things, but is himself to be judged by no one. “For who has understood the mind of the Lord so as to instruct him?” But we have the mind of Christ (1 Corinthians 2:9–16; all Scripture quotations are from the English Standard Version unless otherwise indicated).

“Reading Jester.” Public domain image, via Wikimedia Commons.

The world thinks Christians are fools. We see that more and more in the media. As I am writing this article, the city where I grew up is hosting a “Pride Festival” as part of a month that many institutions have devoted to celebration of the gay/lesbian/bisexual/transgender/etc. lifestyles. Those of us who believe the Bible, and think this is sin, are depicted as haters or ignorant, backwards, knuckle-dragging Neanderthals clinging to old-fashioned misguided morals. According to the world, we are the fools.

This is nothing new. The earliest Christians were considered fools. Paul wrote 1 Corinthians 2:9–16 in a segment where he frequently contrasted wisdom and foolishness. The powers of the world thought they were wise and strong and that the Christians were foolish and weak. Yet, Paul writes, “For the foolishness of God is wiser than men, and the weakness of God is stronger than men” (1 Corinthians 1:25).

Paul mentions that the natural man—someone who is not a Christian and therefore lacks the Holy Spirit within—cannot accept the things of God. Yet, many of us spend much of our time arguing moral and social issues with people who cannot understand spiritual truth. We try to explain why homosexuality is a sin to people who cannot understand that marriage is a divine institution mirroring Christ’s relationship with the Church (Ephesians 5:32). (I know some Christians who are vocally anti-homosexuality but are not following God’s will regarding sex and marriage in their own lives.) We try to speak out against abortion to a society that cannot recognize the preborn baby as a distinct human life; a growing number of people question the value of any human lives. The natural man simply cannot understand spiritual truth and godly morality. It is like trying to explain quantum physics to a kindergarten student.

This is why Jesus sent us to preach His Gospel and make disciples instead of winning political and social debates (Matthew 28:18–20). People do not go to heaven by not being gay, not having an abortion, not taking drugs, not voting Democrat, etc. It is only through Christ that we receive eternal life. Let us introduce people to Christ, trust the Holy Spirit to do His work in their lives, and pray that they receive forgiveness and salvation by faith in Him. Then, we can begin to see God open their spiritual eyes and give them His wisdom and insight.

Also, Christians need to allow the Holy Spirit to renew our own minds. We need a worldview that is very opposite to that of our unsaved neighbors. Far too many Christians merely baptize secular and worldly values in misinterpreted biblical-sounding jargon and end up looking no different than the world. We justify greed and materialism and get the prosperity gospel. We try to sanctify humanistic pride into the positive thinking theology endorsed by many megachurches and televangelists. Many find the ways that their favorite political party may actually be close to Scripture on some issues, and then we twist Scripture to justify their errors elsewhere, thereby exalting politicians above God Himself. Are we different from the world, or have we found ways to blend in while preserving some of the external features of Christianity? (See here for some other articles about renewal of the mind.)

Paul ends the passage above by saying that “we have the mind of Christ.” As you read the entire book of 1 Corinthians, you will notice that his audience was not a crowd of super-spiritual Christians. In fact, they were usually acting like natural men instead of spiritual people. Much of 1 Corinthians contrasts natural vs. spiritual as well as wisdom vs. folly. Yet, no matter how carnal, worldly, and natural they were acting, Paul says that “WE have the mind of Christ.” Not only Paul, but his carnal Corinthian audience, had the mind of Christ. The Corinthians just did not realize it. They were not using it.

Perhaps modern American Christianity is no better. We have the mind of Christ, but we keep using the mind of the world. We have the Holy Spirit, but we rely on the wisdom and power of the mass media and pop psychology instead of the Spirit, Word, and Power of God Almighty.

Since we have the Spirit and mind of Christ, let us think like Jesus thinks. What would He fill His mind with? What would He read or watch on television? How would He think about a situation? Study His Word to find out.

Let us worship like Jesus worships. See how He worshiped His Father while He was on Earth, and do likewise.

Let us love others as Jesus loves. See how He responded to those who were in bondage to sin. See how He had mercy on those who did not deserve mercy.

Let us forgive as He has forgiven us. I find it really easy to judge those who struggle with sinful habits and addictions until I remember the many sins He has forgiven in my life.

We can embrace the wisdom of God’s Word or the wisdom of the world that has turned its back on God. One form of wisdom will seem like foolishness to the other. Which is really the wiser choice?

“When the crowns of gold all lay before His feet
Then the worthy Lamb of God is the treasure we will keep
Some may call me foolish—some may call me odd
But I’d rather be a fool in the eyes of men
Than a fool in the eyes of God.” (Petra, “Fool’s Gold,” from the album Back to the Street. Watch a video for this song on YouTube.)

Copyright © 2019 Michael E. Lynch. All rights reserved.

Categories: Bible meditations, Renewing the Mind Reflections, Revelation and Scripture | Tags: , , , , , , | 1 Comment

New Heart, New Spirit, New Life

“I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you shall be clean from all your uncleannesses, and from all your idols I will cleanse you. And I will give you a new heart, and a new spirit I will put within you. And I will remove the heart of stone from your flesh and give you a heart of flesh. And I will put my Spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes and be careful to obey my rules” (Ezekiel 36:25–27; all Scripture quotations from the English Standard Version unless otherwise indicated).

A fresco from St. Mary’s Church, Bergen auf Rügen, Germany, with the words of Ezekiel 36:26. Image from Wikimedia, under a Creative Commons 4.0 license.

When Jesus raised the cup at the Last Supper and called it “the new covenant in my blood” (Luke 22:20), the disciples should have recognized the words. God’s covenant with Israel was sealed in the blood of sacrifices. The prophets, especially Ezekiel and Jeremiah, had proclaimed God’s intention to make a new covenant with Israel. Jesus was saying that the new covenant was about to come, and His blood would be the sacrificial offering.

“Behold, the days are coming, declares the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and the house of Judah, not like the covenant that I made with their fathers on the day when I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, my covenant that they broke, though I was their husband, declares the Lord. For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, declares the Lord: I will put my law within them, and I will write it on their hearts. And I will be their God, and they shall be my people. And no longer shall each one teach his neighbor and each his brother, saying, ‘Know the Lord,’ for they shall all know me, from the least of them to the greatest, declares the Lord. For I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more” (Jeremiah 31:31–34).

Some believers have been taught that Jeremiah spoke these words to Israel and, therefore, they do not apply to the church. However, Hebrews 10:16–17 quotes this passage directly and states that this is speaking of the New Covenant brought about by Jesus’ blood and death. While the Jewish people before Christ may have experienced part of the blessing foretold by Ezekiel, the fulfillment was found in Christ.

The Old and New Covenants have several similarities and a few differences. In this post, we will look strictly at the new heart and new spirit that are part of the New Covenant. An in-depth comparison and contrast of the two covenants would be too extensive for a single post.

The passage from Ezekiel 36 is a key part of a prophecy regarding the restoration of the Jewish people. They were exiled in Babylon as God’s judgment for idolatry and other sins. The New Covenant prophecies of the Old Testament usually come in this context: Israel has sinned but will be restored. Related to that glorious restoration, God would write His laws in their hearts, giving them new hearts and new spirits. Whereas the Old Covenant was primarily external and physical (people of a particular nationality required to follow specific rules, regulations, and rituals), the New Covenant would be primarily internal and spiritual.

In this New Covenant, God cleanses His people from our sins and idolatries. Then, He gives us a new heart and new spirit, inspiring us to live by His will.

“I will give them a heart to know that I am the Lord, and they shall be my people and I will be their God, for they shall return to me with their whole heart” (Jeremiah 24:7).

“Cast away from you all the transgressions that you have committed, and make yourselves a new heart and a new spirit! Why will you die, O house of Israel?” (Ezekiel 18:31).

The two greatest differences between the Old and New Covenants are the role of Jesus as the One who fulfills the Law and the indwelling power of the Holy Spirit, who gives the new heart and new spirit to the follower of Jesus. He will reveal our sins and idolatries to us, giving us a spirit of repentance and a desire to do God’s will. He will pour out the love of God in our hearts, so that we can obey the two greatest commandments, to love God and love our neighbors (Matthew 19:37–40).

Only by the indwelling of the Holy Spirit can we really understand God’s word, will, and ways. One of the most common errors Christians commit is trying to obey God on our terms, in our strength. We try to figure out His will by using our own logic or listening to current public opinion. We may try to do His will based on the same motives as someone who does not have a relationship with Christ—fear of being rejected by God if we sin, trying to impress others, seeking approval from others. Even when we figure out God’s will, we try to do it in our own strength and timing.

We need the Holy Spirit within us. We need His power to strengthen us. We need God’s word and His own life-force within us to live the life that pleases Him. If you have the Holy Spirit dwelling within you, pray that He may give you the strength you need. Ask Him to let you know when you have wandered from His leadership and started trusting in your own wisdom and strength. Let Him be your guide and strength.

Almighty and most merciful God, grant that by the indwelling of your Holy Spirit we may be enlightened and strengthened for your service; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you, in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever. Amen (Book of Common Prayer).

Copyright © 2019 Michael E. Lynch. All rights reserved.

Categories: Bible meditations, Christian Life | Tags: , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Ascension, Visitation, Pentecost: A Pro-Life Perspective

“In those days Mary arose and went with haste into the hill country, to a town in Judah, and she entered the house of Zechariah and greeted Elizabeth. And when Elizabeth heard the greeting of Mary, the baby leaped in her womb. And Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit, and she exclaimed with a loud cry, ‘Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb! And why is this granted to me that the mother of my Lord should come to me? For behold, when the sound of your greeting came to my ears, the baby in my womb leaped for joy. And blessed is she who believed that there would be a fulfillment of what was spoken to her from the Lord’” (Luke 1:39–45; all Scripture quotations are from the ESV unless otherwise indicated).

This article is based on a homily I shared yesterday at my church’s monthly Liturgy for the Preborn outside Planned Parenthood in Hempstead, NY. On the first Saturday of every month, a group of us gather to pray for an end to abortion. The liturgy includes prayers from a funeral service, recognizing that the facility’s “medical services” include the murder of helpless preborn children.

An artist’s depiction of the visitation, ca. 1410. Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.

This weekend’s liturgy came during a busy time on the church calendar. Thursday was the Feast of the Ascension, when Christians commemorate Christ’s return to heaven to sit at the right hand of the Father. Although many Christians overlook this date, my church believes it is important enough for all Christians to acknowledge, so we celebrate it on the following Sunday. Friday was the Feast of the Visitation, when the newly-pregnant Mary visited her relative Elizabeth (mother of John the Baptist). A little over one week later we will celebrate Pentecost, when the Holy Spirit filled the first followers of Jesus and empowered them to fulfill His Great Commission. Thus, we have three feasts within ten days to honor significant events in the life of Christ and His Church.

It is easy to see the connections between Ascension and Pentecost. Jesus Christ, the eternal Son of the Father, ascended to heaven. He brought something with Him that He did not have before coming to earth: a human body. A part of humanity now dwells in heaven. Ten days later, He sent the third person of the Trinity to dwell in and empower His disciples. Yes, brothers and sisters in Christ, divinity dwells within you! You are now a partaker of the divine nature! The very life of God dwells within you.

This thought brings us to the Feast of the Visitation. Whereas this feast celebrates an event while Jesus was in the womb (before He was born), Pentecost celebrates an event after He returned to heaven. Although they occurred at opposite ends of His earthly ministry, they are intertwined. In each event, we can see the life and power of the Holy Spirit in the lives of God’s people.

The first person to have a member of the Trinity dwelling within her was Mary, when she was carrying Jesus in her womb. The first person the New Testament speaks of as being “filled with the Holy Spirit” is Elizabeth. This infilling is closely intertwined with the fact that her preborn son, John the Baptist—somewhere between the third and sixth months of pregnancy—is the first person to testify that Jesus is the Son of God. Somehow, when he heard Mary’s voice, he recognized the Son of God within her and leaped with such excitement that Elizabeth knew something miraculous was happening.

The Bible declares the personhood of the fetus in the mother’s womb. John the Baptist began his ministry before he was even born. The Holy Spirit was at work in him. As miraculous as that sounds, he was not the first prophet whom God called before birth. The prophet Jeremiah said,

“Before I formed you in the womb I knew you,
and before you were born I consecrated you;
I appointed you a prophet to the nations” (Jeremiah 1:5).

This is why Christians speak out against abortion. If it were merely a medical procedure, we could be silent. Some of us may dislike tattoos, but that really affects only the person receiving the tattoo; no innocent lives are lost because of them. Some medical procedures, like cosmetic surgery, may feed on the sins of pride and vanity. Yet, we remain silent, since it does not affect other lives. However, true Christians cannot be silent about murder.

Many of our “political” issues are really spiritual issues which have been hijacked by politicians and the media. Abortion is just one of many social ills that have arisen as America has rejected God and ignored the deity of Jesus Christ. For the Christian, our mission remains the same as that of John the Baptist and the apostles. We must proclaim the kingdom of God as revealed in Jesus Christ; we must live by the power of the indwelling Holy Spirit, who empowers us to proclaim His kingdom and continue His work; and we must reveal His presence and power until He comes again. Christ has filled us with His Holy Spirit. He lives in us as He did in Mary, Elizabeth, and John the Baptist. May we always serve Him and share His love with those around us. May it always be our goal for our lives and words to testify to the presence of Christ and the Kingdom of God.

Copyright © 2019 Michael E. Lynch. All rights reserved.

Categories: Bible meditations, Christians and Culture, Church Calendar: Holy Days and Seasons, Politics | Tags: , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

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